It is bioactivated hepatically to its primary metabolite, N-desethylamodiaquine, by the cytochrome p450 enzyme CYP2C8. Among amodiaquine users, several rare but serious side effects have been reported and linked to variants in the CYP2C8 alleles. Plaquenil prevent antiphosphilipud Can plaquenil cause kidney disease Oregano oil and plaquenil Plaquenil methotrexate shigles vaccine Alving and colleagues provided evidence of synergy in radical curative activity between primaquine and both quinine and chloroquine. Primaquine is metabolized mainly to carboxyprimaquine via monoamine oxidase and via cytochrome P450 enzymes to several other identified and unidentified metabolites that are detectable in plasma or urine. Hydroxychloroquine, sold under the brand name Plaquenil among others, is a medication used for the prevention and treatment of certain types of malaria. Specifically it is used for chloroquine-sensitive malaria. Other uses include treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and porphyria cutanea tarda. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, headache, changes in vision and muscle weakness. Severe side effects may include allergic reactions. It does not appear to be safe during Quinine is well absorbed by mouth or following intramuscular injection even in severe cases of malaria estimated bioavailability more than 85%. Quinine and chloroquine may cause potentially lethal hypotension if given by intravenous injection. People who are poor metabolizers of amodiaquine display lower treatment efficacy against malaria, as well as increased toxicity. CYP2C8*1 is characterized as the wild-type allele, which shows an acceptable safety profile, while CYP2C8*2, *3 and *4 all show a range of "poor metabolizer" phenotypes. Pharmacokinetics of quinine chloroquine and amodiaquine Pharmacokinetics of antimalarials quinine and mefloquine., Hydroxychloroquine - Wikipedia Plaquenil toxicity visual fieldHydroxychloroquine sulfate 200 mg costHydroxychloroquine sulfate advers reactions Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Zidovudine. Pharmacokinetics of Quinine, Chloroquine and Amodiaquine. Dr Sanjeev Krishna, Nicholas J. White Pages 263-299. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Volume 30, Issue 4 - Springer. Pharmacokinetics of Quinine, Chloroquine and Amodiaquine.. Quinine Uses, Benefits & Dosage - Herbal Database. Pharmacokinetics of chloroquine in Thais plasma and red-cell concentrations following an intravenous infusion to healthy subjects and patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Br. J. Chloroquine, noncurative, and amodiaquine, partially curative, have nearly the same initial dose-independent killing with a lag phase of minimal parasite reduction at all doses between 6 and 24. The pharmacokinetics of chloroquine were studied after intramuscular and intravenous administration of the drug to healthy African adults. Chloroquine was analysed in plasma using an h.p.l.c. method and pharmacokinetic parameters were derived from the concentration-time data using a non-linear computer programme.